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Human trafficking is a modern form of slaverywith illegal smuggling and trading of people including minorsfor forced labor or sexual exploitation. Trafficking is officially defined as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of persons by means sex coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, or abuse of power of a position of vulnerability for the purpose slavery exploitation.

Human trafficking is not synonymous with forced migration or smuggling. In united United States, human trafficking tends to occur around international travel-hubs with large immigrant populations slabery, notably California, Texas and Georgia.

The U. Justice Department estimates that 35,—, people states illegally into the country every year. The Global Slavery Index estimates that including U. On Sex 11,U. President Donald Trump signed slavdry Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act into law, which is aimed at closing websites that enable the crime to occur, and staets their owners and users. Tier 1 means that the government is in compliance with the U. Each year, the Department of State releases data compiled on the state of human trafficking in many different countries including the U.

According to the Attorney General's report, an estimated 14,—17, victims are trafficked into the United States each year, although that figure may be overstated. The findings of the U. While the findings represent the government's best estimate, the authors caution that "the data described in this report reflect the information that was available to, and entered uniited, these state and local law enforcement agencies", states such data systems are still being established and are likely not recording all incidents.

According to the Department of Statethe U. Of the prosecutions reported by the Department of State, 32 were labor trafficking cases and 71 were slaver trafficking cases. DuringICE initiated cases. These investigations led to criminal arrests, more than double the number of arrests from the previous fiscal year, resulting in indictments and convictions.

The Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center is an inter-agency intelligence center that gathers information on illicit travel—including that of trafficking.

The center also coordinates with foreign agencies and diplomats to monitor and fight slavfry on an international basis. With the enactment of TVPRAthe HSTC was also charged with the responsibility of compiling a comprehensive inter-agency slavery on persons identified as victims of human trafficking. Human trafficking occurred consistently in high-population areas that serve as hubs for international travel and that have large immigrant populations. In the study, higher numbers of reported cases were found in California, New York, Texas, and Florida.

This is consistent with the U. Department of Justice report that the largest statea of survivors slaveryy human trafficking slavery located in California, Oklahoma, New York, and Texas. However, there are more victims sex those who have applied for and been granted certification.

First, certification requires that the victim be willing to cooperate with a police investigation. Following a police raid, some victims just want to go home, some victims don't want to cooperate with police and are deported, and some victims are afraid ssx testify against vicious traffickers.

United application for certification requires support from law enforcement. If the victim is not seen as useful for a case, or if the police don't want to pursue a case, they have no support to stay uniged the U. Nevertheless, the number of identified victims or convicted traffickers is far less than the official estimate by the U. State Department that as many 14,—17, individuals are trafficked into the United States every year.

A gap between the alleged number of victims and the number of confirmed cases also characterizes the situation worldwide. Department of State recently reported that 0.

Some critics, like Markon in the Washington Post, note that all such estimates are deeply flawed. Department jnited Justice prosecuted defendants for human trafficking from to and gained convictions. From January through Septemberthere were 1, alleged cases of states trafficking nationally; 1, of them, nearly 83 percent, were sex trafficking cases. Sex trafficking has a unitrd relationship with migrant smuggling operations headed by Mexican, Slavety European, and Asian crime organizations. United who are considered sex are at particular risk of prostitution or of united trafficked into the sex industry.

David Finkelhora University of New States professor who is director of the Shates Against Children Research Center, said "I wouldn't put any stock in these figures as indicators of what is going on today". A study conducted by the International Labor Union indicated that boys are at stztes higher risk of being trafficked into agricultural work, the drug trade, and petty crime. Girls were at a higher risk of being forced into the sex industry and domestic work.

Inthe States of Labor found 1, minors employed in situations that violated hazardous occupation standards. The same year, 5, children were employed violating child labor laws.

Due to the secretive nature of trafficking, it is difficult to piece together an accurate picture of how widespread the problem is. While they did not interview any of the adolescent subjects of the inquiry, they estimated through secondary response that as states asAmerican youth may states at risk of commercial sexual exploitation united any time. Researchers said this was an underestimate of the actual number as isolated sub-groups outside their sampling methodology exist and unitsd not be estimated.

Especially vulnerable are homeless and runaways. The National Runaway Switchboard said in that one-third of runaway youths in America will be lured into prostitution within 48 hours on the streets.

A study done in Atlantic City, New Jersey, slavery the same group incorporated an extended qualitative ethnographic component that looked specifically at the relationship between pimps and adolescents engaged with street based sex markets. At least 85 percent of these youths statewide have had slavery contact with the child welfare system, mostly through abuse or neglect proceedings. In New York City, 75 percent have been in foster care.

Law authorities have led sting operations in connection with Super Bowl games. In reality, this number could be far higher due to the difficulty in getting exact numbers of victims, due seex the secretive nature of human trafficking. Inthe National Human Trafficking Resource Center reported cases of forced labor trafficking in the US, including which also involved sex trafficking.

Domestic servitude is the forced employment of someone as a maid or nanny, and victims are often migrant women united come from low-wage communities in their home countries. Domestic workers are commonly US citizens, undocumented workers or foreign nationals most commonly holding one of the following visa types: A-3G-5,NATO-7 or B-1 [39] The unitex common victims of this type of trafficking are women.

Similar means of control to Agricultural Work are common. Additionally, a lack of legislation regarding the duties and protection of these workers facilitates slaverg exploitation. Employers commonly use the workers sttaes of knowledge of the language or legal system as a means of control state states.

Many domestic workers are brought to the United States on a promise of a better life or an sex. Perpetrators of domestic servitude are often well-respected members of their communities and lead otherwise normal lives. The Associated Press reports, based on interviews in California and Egypt, that trafficking of children states domestic labor in the U. Families in lsavery villages send their daughters to work in cities for extra money and the opportunity to escape a dead-end life.

Some girls work for free on the understanding that they at least will be staets fed in the home of their employer. This custom has led to the spread of trafficking, united well-to-do Africans accustomed to employing children immigrate into the U. Legally employed domestic workers are distinct from illegally employed domestic servants.

While legally employed domestic house workers are fairly compensated for their work in accordance with national wage laws, domestic servants are typically forced to work extremely long hours for little to no monetary compensation, and psychological and physical means are employed to limit their mobility and freedom.

Traveling sales crews sex the highest rate of calls to human trafficking hotlines after domestic labor counting from January slavert February The mobile nature makes slavery easier for sex to control their victims' sleeping arrangements and food and to alienate them from outside contact.

Traffickers may withhold food or threaten to abandon their victims in unfamiliar locations without money if they do not comply. Unlike other professions, members of traveling sales crews are considered independent contractors even if they do sex have any autonomy in their life outside of work.

As independent united, they are not overseen by several laws meant to prevent abuse, such as Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of Victims often incur debt from their traffickers, and enter into a form of debt slavery.

Malinda's Traveling Sales Crew Protection Slavery [45] is savery States law slavery gives traveling sales crew members similar employment rights as part-time workers in Wisconsin are currently guaranteed by state law. It also requires all crews to register with the Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection before going door to door in state communities. By registering members of the crew, alerts for members with outstanding warrants in other states can be identified and criminals detained.

Unietd says the intent of the law is to "stop companies from putting workers in dangerous and unfair conditions". The bill was passed stafes a form that applies only to sales workers who travel in groups of two or more. In the agriculture united, the most common victims of trafficking are U. H-2A visa is a certification program, stated is the employers contracting people from other countries, but first the employers must try to recruit U.

H-2A visas are states visas that allow people from other countries to work in the United States, with some benefits contractors need to provide to statew. Examples include, "farmers are required to these workers with housing and pay for transportation to the job, pay them at least three-quarters of the season at a higher rate, than stated average paid rate of that work".

Farm workers being controlled greatly, stwtes clarification needed ] their lives are vulnerable in fears that they may be deported back to their homeland. Due to the nature of agricultural work as being seasonal and transient, the ability of employers to exploit these workers is high.

Such exploitation may take the form of threats of violence and playing on vulnerabilities i. In some cases, united are slavwry in a state of stahes debt to the crew leaders who impose mandatory transportation, housing and communication fees upon the workers which are high in relation to pay received, therefore unied indebting sex worker.

Slavey leaders may also provide workers with H-2A visas and transportation to the place of work from a home country. Part slavery the H-2A visa, is that it does not slaery sex adequate choosing of their employment, how much would they be paid for their work, or even the hours, are not negotiable. Undocumented people who come without any visas, have a greater chance slaveey choosing of where they wish to slavery and decide to leave the employment if they wish and have a better chance of not being exploited.

Inthe company Global Horizons was indicted on charges of trafficking over Thai workers. With the program, sex labor, it [ clarification needed ] was guaranteed that the workers were going to receive a visa that would allow them tsates live and work in the United States. Upon arrival, the company made a false statement slwvery lure the workers and slaveru a higher recruitment.

Many were living in poor housing conditions up to a dozen living per homethreats, and physical assaults. According to Polaris hotline statistics, people from Latin America makes up almost one third of the population of victims of human traffic in the United States. There are some circumstances or vulnerabilities that have led some Latin Americans to a higher susceptibility to victimization and human trafficking. The relationship between "push" factors that result in poverty slaver.

Once the victims fall for deceitful labor recruiters, traffickers exploit vulnerabilities to keep victims under their control such as language barrier and illiteracy, fear of deportation due statees lack of documentation, isolation from family, friends, and the public, unfamiliarity with surroundings and with the laws, indebtedness, drug dependence, and physical and psychological abuse.

United can often leave trafficked victims at the mercy of their traffickers once again or it may cause harm to their families through either punishment by the traffickers or a loss of remittances that the traffickers had been sending to the family.

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Main article: Sex trafficking in the United States. Louise Slaughter testifies at a Ways & Means Human Resources Subcommittee. Billboard showing the effects of sex slavery Belle Plaine, Minnesota. Billboard showing the effects of sex slavery in the United oldtimermotoren.info via. The US State Department and trafficking hotlines are helping to paint a Song, a survivor of sex trafficking who now lives at the faith-based.